In this illustration (left) of a large kitchen, there are several pieces of cooking equiptment that were basic to a well-provisioned household kitchen in England.
The low wall ovens are topped by clay kettles for simmering and boiling. The hearth is equipt with spits and hanging cranes for large pots. The mortar and pestle in the foreground were essential to any cook preparing sauces, using nuts as thickening agents, or grinding spices for flavor.
The pasta table, however, marks this kitchen as an Italian one.