The Folger Method


Folger Education: Principles and Practices for Teaching Shakespeare and Other Complex Texts

The Folger Method is about the sparks that fly when students engage directly with great texts and questions, and it boils down to a basic set of Principles and Practices.

On This Page:


8 Foundational Principles

1. Shakespeare's language is not a barrier but a portal.

The language is what enables students to discover amazing things in the texts, the world, and themselves.

2. All students and teachers deserve the real thing:

  • Shakespeare’s original language
  • Primary source materials from the Folger and elsewhere
  • Facts that present a complete picture of the Early Modern world
  • Honest conversations about the hard questions raised in the plays

3. The Folger Method is a radical engine for equity.

Every single student can learn this way, and every teacher can teach this way. Use our tools to help all students read closely, interrogate actively, and make meaning from texts.

4. Give up Shakespeare Worship.

If your Shakespeare lives on a pedestal, take him down and move him to a space where he can talk to everyday people...and other great writers like Toni Morrison and Julia Alvarez, F. Scott Fitzgerald and Azar Nafisi, James Baldwin and Homer, Frederick Douglass and Joy Harjo, Jane Austen and Pablo Neruda, Amy Tan and George Moses Horton.

5. Throw out themes, tidy explanations, the idea of a single right interpretation.

Together with your students, embrace the questions.

6. The teacher is not the connector or explainer but rather the architect.

Set up the interactions through which your students and Shakespeare discover each other.

7. Amplify the voice of every single student.

Shakespeare has something to say to everybody, and everybody has something to say back to Shakespeare. The future of the humanities—and our world—depends on the insights and contributions of all our students.

8. Set students on fire with excitement about literature.

When students learn this way, these things improve:

  • their ability to read closely,
  • their ability to cite evidence from the text,
  • their confidence in tackling the next challenge.

The Arc of Learning

Students progress through an arc that reflects the architecture of a play. Right from the start, students are doing things directly with the original language. No teacher modeling. The learning is scaffolded by increasing the length and complexity of the language, by following this arc:

                                         The Folger Method Arc of Learning


9 Essential Practices

The Folger Method involves nine essential learning activities that get students connecting directly and deeply with literary language. These are student-centered, language-focused protocols that work with a wide range of texts and units of study. Below are simply the names of the essential practices. Want to see the Folger Method in action? Check out these videos for examples of Tone & StressChoral Reading, and Cutting a Text. For fuller explanation, become a Teacher Member today and gain exclusive access to hundreds of lesson plans putting these practices into action available only at Folger Teaching!

1. Tone & Stress

2. Tossing Words and Lines

3. Two-line Scenes

4. 20-Minute Plays

5. Choral Reading

6. 3-D Shakespeare

7. Cutting a Text

8. Promptbooks

9. Group Scenes


Touchstone Questions for Teachers

As teachers, we use these questions to guide our planning, teaching, and reflection:

1. Are Shakespeare’s words in ALL students’ mouths?

2. Are ALL students collaborating with each other and Shakespeare?

3. Has the voice of every student been included, honored, and amplified?

4. Have students bravely and respectfully confronted the tough issues (identity, difference, power) raised by the text?

5. Did I, the teacher, get out of the way?


What Teachers Say About the Folger Method

  • “The Folger Method has changed how I teach not just Shakespeare but everything. It has transformed my classroom, my students, and me.” – High school English teacher, Iowa
  • “With this method, my students are reading more deeply than they ever have before. They are breaking down language and really understanding it.” – High school English teacher, Washington, DC
  • “I am equipped and empowered to take risks as a teacher and let my students own their learning.” – High school English teacher, New York
  • “Students complain when it’s time to [leave]. I have gleefully stepped back so they can create scenes, shout [lines], toss words and lines, and cut speeches. They volunteer to read aloud even when reading aloud is hard for them. We dive in and focus on the words. It's working.” – Middle school English and drama teacher, Maryland
  • “I now have my tools to get students inside any text.” – High School English teacher, Georgia
  • “Our English department has ‘Folger-ized’ practically everything we do, and students are so much more engaged, excited, and challenged!” – High school English teacher, California
  • “Connecting with the words this way empowers [students] to become stronger, more confident and enthusiastic readers and communicators.” – Community college English instructor, Massachusetts