"But soft, what light through yonder window breaks?" (Romeo and Juliet, 2.2.2) Explore blog posts, videos, podcast episodes, and items from the Folger collection that shed light on the characters, plot, themes, and history of Romeo and Juliet, Shakespeare's tragic love story.
Jump directly to these Romeo and Juliet resources:
- Plot synopsis
- Character map
- Understanding and interpreting Romeo and Juliet
- Romeo and Juliet in performance and adaptations
- Cultural influence
- Inside the Folger collection
- Famous quotes
- Early printed texts, images, and resources for teachers
The prologue of Romeo and Juliet calls the title characters "star-crossed lovers"—and the stars do seem to conspire against these young lovers.
Romeo is a Montague, and Juliet a Capulet. Their families are enmeshed in a feud, but the moment they meet—when Romeo and his friends attend a party at Juliet's house in disguise—the two fall in love and quickly decide that they want to be married.
A friar secretly marries them, hoping to end the feud. Romeo and his companions almost immediately encounter Juliet's cousin Tybalt, who challenges Romeo. When Romeo refuses to fight, Romeo’s friend Mercutio accepts the challenge and is killed. Romeo then kills Tybalt and is banished. He spends that night with Juliet and then leaves for Mantua.
Juliet’s father forces her into a marriage with Count Paris. To avoid this marriage, Juliet takes a potion, given her by the friar, which makes her appear dead. The friar will send Romeo word to be at her family tomb when she awakes. The plan goes awry, and Romeo learns instead that she is dead. In the tomb, Romeo kills himself. Juliet wakes, sees his body, and commits suicide. Their deaths appear finally to end the feud.
Romeo and Juliet character map
Understanding and interpreting Romeo and Juliet
Romeo and Juliet Through the Ages
Learn how Romeo and Juliet has been cut and molded to fit certain cultural expectations in different time periods.
Elizabethan Street Fighting
How do the duels in Romeo and Juliet reflect the street violence of Shakespeare's day?
Romeo and Juliet in performance and adaptations
Charlotte Cushman: When Romeo Was a Woman
Actress Charlotte Cushman was a 19th-century theatrical icon known for playing traditionally male roles, like Romeo, with a uniquely assertive and athletic style.
Olivia Hussey: The Girl on the Balcony
Olivia Hussey was just fifteen when Franco Zeffirelli cast her in the 1968 film Romeo and Juliet. Hear an interview with the actress.
Leonard Bernstein and West Side Story
Take a closer look at American composer Leonard Bernstein and the creation of West Side Story, the 1957 smash Broadway hit adaptation of Romeo and Juliet.
The tragedy of Romeo and Juliet in four beautiful duets
Matthew Shilvock of San Francisco Opera writes about the Charles Gounod opera based on Shakespeare's love story.
Starting in the 1930s, people began sending letters asking for advice on love and romance to Verona, Italy. The letters were all addressed to Juliet.
Inside the Folger collection
Two film studios, alike in dignity
A program in the Folger collection raises questions about two lost film adaptations of Romeo and Juliet in 1916.
A carousel of tragedy
See inside a delightful artist's book inspired by Romeo and Juliet.
Jean Cocteau's Romeo
Explore a wonderful example of surrealist theater.
Romeo and Juliet
This painting by James Northcote captures a key moment in the play.
Each quote is followed by the character who's speaking and the act, scene, and line number. Read the quote in context on the Folger Shakespeare site.
A pair of star-crossed lovers… (Chorus—Pro. 6)
…sad hours seem long. (Romeo—1.1.166)
If love be rough with you, be rough with love. (Mercutio—1.4.27)
O, she doth teach the torches to burn bright!
It seems she hangs upon the cheek of night
Like a rich jewel in an Ethiop’s ear. (Romeo—1.5.51–53)
You kiss by th’ book… (Juliet—1.5.122)
But soft, what light through yonder window breaks? (Romeo—2.2.2)
O Romeo, Romeo, wherefore art thou Romeo? (Juliet—2.2.36)
That which we call a rose
By any other word would smell as sweet. (Juliet—2.2.46–47)
Good night, good night. Parting is such sweet sorrow
That I shall say “Good night” till it be morrow. (Juliet—2.2.199–201)
A plague o’ both your houses! (Mercutio—3.1.111)
Death, that hath sucked the honey of thy breath,
Hath had no power yet upon thy beauty.
Early printed texts
Romeo and Juliet was first printed in 1597 (Q1) as a quarto that is markedly different than any subsequent early printing: it is shorter, the wedding scene is radically different, and the language widely differs in the last three acts. The play appeared as a quarto in 1599 (Q2) in a text that seems to have had a different source than the one behind Q1; this version of the play was reprinted in 1609 (Q3) and in 1623 (Q4). The play is included in the 1623 First Folio, with a text that differs from Q3 beyond what we would expect typesetters to change. Most modern editions, like the Folger, are based on Q2.
Picturing Romeo and Juliet
As part of an NEH-funded project, the Folger digitized thousands of 18th-, 19th-, and early 20th-century images representing Shakespeare’s plays. Some of these images show actors in character, while others show the plays as if they were real-life events—telling the difference isn't always easy. A selection of images related to Romeo and Juliet is shown below, with links to our digital image collection.
More images of Romeo and Juliet can be seen in our digital image collection. (Because of how they were cataloged, some images from other plays might appear in the image searches linked here, so always check the sidebar to see if the image is described as part of a larger group.)
Teacher & student resources
Created by teachers and curated by the Folger, these teaching modules can help you with Romeo and Juliet in the classroom: